keyless adj : lacking or not requiring a key; "a keyless lock operated by a series of pushbuttons" [ant: keyed]
A remote keyless system is a system designed to remotely permit or deny access to premises or automobiles. There are several RKE systems on the market, including but not limited to KeeLoq by Microchip, HITAG by Philips, and AVR411 by Atmel.
In the case of automobiles an RKS performs the functions of a standard car key without physical contact; power door locks can be locked or unlocked from several feet away or even from inside a building. (In this regard, the term "keyless" is a misnomer since the fob acts as an electronic key. Locking it in the car is just as much of a problem as doing the same with a mechanical key. "True" keyless entry is accomplished with a keypad on the door, an option on certain Ford products.)
A remote keyless system can include both a remote keyless entry system (RKE) and a remote keyless ignition system (RKI).
Remote keyless systems first began appearing as an option on several American Motors vehicles in 1983, including the Renault Alliance. The feature gained its first widespread availability on General Motors' W-platform vehicles (the Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme and Pontiac Grand Prix) in 1989.
FunctionRemote keyless systems operate by broadcasting radio waves on a particular frequency. Most RKEs work on 315MHz in North America and Japan, and 433.92MHz in Europe. Modern systems implement encryption to prevent car thieves from intercepting and spoofing the signal.
The system signals that it has either locked or unlocked the car usually through some fairly discreet combination of flashing vehicle lamps, a distinctive sound other than the horn, or some usage of the horn itself.
The functions of a remote keyless entry system are contained on a key fob or built into the ignition key handle itself. Buttons are dedicated to locking or unlocking the doors and opening the trunk (or, on sport utility vehicles and station wagons, unlock/open the rear tailgate). Some cars will also close any open windows and roof when remotely locking the car. Some remote keyless fobs also feature a red panic button which activates the car alarm as a standard feature.
Some cars engines with remote keyless ignition systems can be started by the push of a button on key fob.
For offices, or residences, the system can also be coupled with the security system, garage door opener or remotely activated lighting devices.
Range testingThe operating range of keyless remotes varies widely between manufacturers. E.g., Ford use 20m for Europe and North America and 5m for Japan and other markets where the transmitted power restrictions are much greater. The range is either measured from the skin of the car or from a nominal central point. The range around the vehicle is not linear as corner pillars and small window apertures attenuate the signal, hence reduces its range.
Remote keyless entry fobs emit a radio frequency with a designated, distinct digital identity code. Inasmuch as "programming" fobs is a proprietary technical process, it is typically performed by the automobile dealership. (In point of fact it is a computer in the car which is programmed in the process, not the fob itself.) In general, the procedure is to put the car in 'programming mode'. This usually entails engaging the power in the car several times while holding a button or lever. It may also include opening doors, or removing fuses. The procedure varies amongst various makes, models, and years. Once in 'programming mode' one or more of the fob buttons is depressed to send the digital identity code to the car's onboard computer. The computer saves the code and the car is then taken out of 'programming mode'.
As RKS fobs have become more prevalent in the automobile industry a secondary market of unprogrammed devices on sites like Keylessride have sprung up. Some web sites sell steps to program fobs for individual models of cars as well as accessory kits to remotely activate other car devices.
On cars where the trunk release is electronically operated, it can be triggered to open by a button on the remote. Conventionally, the trunk springs open with the help of hydraulic struts or torsion springs, and thereafter must be lowered manually. Premium models (like SUVs with tailgates which are possibly out-of-reach for some) may have a motorized assist that can both open and close the tailgate for easy access and remote operation.
Advanced KeySome cars have a proximity system that is triggered if a keylike transducer (Advanced Key) is within a certain distance of the car. It is sometimes called hands-free.
- Near Field Communication – possible uses and applications
keyless in German: Handsender
keyless in French: Plip